The Origins of Antarctica
About 250 million years ago Antarctica was located in the subtropical band of the planet, covered with abundant forests and inhabited by reptiles and amphibians. At this time it was part of the supercontinent of Gondwana, from which it permanently separated 65 million years ago and began to drift towards the South Pole. Its gradual cooling set the stage for the formation of the ice, making it the most extreme and inaccessible land in the world.
The Antarctic ecosystem is the result of long and complex evolutionary processes that have allowed life forms to adapt to the extreme polar environment, producing a system composed of a limited number of species that depend directly on each other and the habitat in which they live. There are various species of penguins, whales, seals, and seabirds in the Antarctic ecosystem. On the continent, there are five species of penguins: the Adelie Penguin, Chinstrap Penguin, King Penguin, Gentoo Penguin, and the Macaroni Penguin. Penguins in Antarctica typically have a diet of squid, fish, and crustaceans. There are three species of whales that visit Antarctica every year: Orca, Humpback, and Minke whales. Thanks to their warm blubbery bodies and being fantastic swimmers, seals are perfectly adapted for life in the Antarctic ecosystem. There are up to four species of seals that you could see on your visit: the Elephant Seal, Leopard Seal, Crabeater Seal, and the Weddell Seal. Additionally, you will find several species of seabirds including Albatross, Blue-Eyed Shag, Snowy Sheathbill, and more.
Today, the Antarctic continent, without doubt, is the most mysterious place on the planet. Its permanent ice sheet covering and almost completely hiding its topography. An ecological wonder it has bewitched explorers, scientists and voyagers alike for centuries.